- Veneer refers to a thin sheet of wood, typically glued onto core panels to produce flat panels such as doors, tops and panels for cabinets, parquet floors and furniture parts.
Manufacturing of veneer
Methods of veneer cutting
1. Rotary Cut Veneer:
2. Crown Cut or Plain or Flat cut Veneer :
3. Quarter Normal Cut Veneer:
4. Quarter Rift Cut Veneer:
5. Half-round Cut Veneer:
Types of veneer matching
- According to this, individual veneer leaves will be joined together on the face of the panel.
1. Book Matched Veneer
2. Slip Matched Veneer
3. Random Matched Veneer
- According to this, veneer face is positioned differently.
1. Running Matched Veneer
2. Balance Matched Veneer
3. Special Matches
- It involves the orientation of finished panels during the construction.
1. Architectural End Match
2. Continuous End Matched Veneer
3. Panel End Matched Veneer
Properties of veneer
1. Sound Insulation
- Veneers are thin slices with minimal thickness and have negligible effect on the acoustic properties of materials.
- To increase the absorption capacity, holes or slots are made and distributed over the surface area.
2. Moisture Resistance
- Veneers are vulnerable to moisture in outdoors, there are ways to improve moisture resistance and dimensional stability.
- Treat veneers with a solution which results in cross linking of cellulose fibres.
- Thermal treatment is another way to produce moisture resisant veneers.
3. Electrical Conductivity
- Application of oil or wax on wooden flooring ensures that it remains antistatic.
4. Recyclability & Renewability:
- Veneer is a recyclable, renewable material with the lowest impact on energy use and pollution.
- It uses 70% less energy compared to other building materials.
- Using veneer over timber extends the use.
General uses of veneer
- Veneer is primarily a material used to enhance aesthetics of interiors.
- It provides the rich look of solid wood to floor, walls, ceiling and other building elements like doors and windows.
- It is suitable for furniture decoration in residential and commercial spaces.
- It can be used to create wooden instruments as well as decorative items.
4. Luxury products
- It is suitable for bespoke products such as wines and chocolate boxes, luxury soap boxes, etc.
- Its use also diversifies into processed forms such as veneer parquet, wood veneer boards, etc.
Types of veneers
1. Raw veneer
2. Flexible veneer
1. Light: Maple, Birch, Ash and Alder
2. Reddish: Beech, Cherry, Wild Service Tree and Mahogany
3. Brown: Oak, Teak and Walnut
4. Dark: Wenge, Bog Oak and Macassar
- These are veneers that are permanently bonded to a paper backing.
- It is available in large sizes in the form of sheets, as otherwise, smaller pieces are bonded together before adding the backing.
- It is less likely to crack when being applied on curves.
- It is a less commonly used plastic, water resistant resin bonded to the back of a sheet of wood veneer.
- Like the paper-backed veneers, it also has the advantage of being available in sheets, and is also less likely to crack when being applied on curves.
3. Laid up
- Raw veneer that has been bonded together to produce larger pieces.
- It can be laid up to any size, shape or design can be selected.
Available sizes and thickness of veneer
Veneer size in sq.ft
Veneer size in mm
|8×4||2449 x 1219|
|10×4||3048 x 1219|
|12×4||3658 x 1219|
- The thickness of the veneer determines its durability.
- The standard thickness of wood veneer measures between 0.5mm and 4mm.
Price range of veneer
Type of Woods
|Oak||Rs. 140 /sq. ft.|
|Beech Wood||Rs.90/sq. ft.|
Type of Finishes/Polishes
|Mat||Rs.70/sq. ft. ? Rs.80/sq. ft.|
|PU (Poly urethane)||Rs.150/sq. ft. ? Rs.175/sq. ft.|
|Lamination||Rs.350/sq. ft. ? Rs.400/sq. ft.|
Defects in veneer
- Dark, mostly due to water drops that condense on iron parts (iron tannate staining).
2. Burls (burrs)
- Small, round or oval buds.
- It is the occurrence of tiny black dots or striations between the annual rings, caused by resin inclusion.
4. Fiddleback (wavy figure
- These are rays or striations running across the grain at a uniform distance.
- This defect can be seen in Walnut, Cherry, Beech, Ash, Maple, Mahogany, Walnut, and Teak.
- Striations and rays are observed running in the direction of growth.
6. Silver figure (flake):
- Light-coloured, slightly iridescent dots, caused by cutting across wood (xylem) rays.
- Light-coloured round or oval spots.
8. Resin pockets:
- Identified by dark dots and striations running along the annual rings, formed as result of rein deposits.
Advantages of veneer
1. Aesthetics like Natural Wood at Lower Costs
- Wood veneers are excellent alternatives to natural wood. They imitate the appearance of natural wood, but at much lower costs.
2. Flexibility in Design
- Each wood veneer sheet is distinctive as each tree is unique.
- This makes for endless design possibilities with furniture and interior elements.
3. Increased Strength and Durability
- Application of wood veneer sheets to engineered woods strengthens and increases their durability
- Veneers resist warping and fragmentation and last longer than laminates
- It is a natural, environment friendly material which can easily be recycled.
- Wood veneers help in better utilization of wood, since very thin layers of wood are used for decorative purposes.
- Veneers are generally non-toxic.
Disadvantages of veneer
1. Vulnerable to Water Damage
- Prolonged exposure to water can damage veneers.
- Application of a sealant over the veneer protects its surface from wet conditions.
2. More Maintenance
- Wood veneers require more maintenance and they need to be polished periodically.
3. Cannot be Repaired
- Once damaged, wood veneer cannot be repaired, unlike natural wood furniture which can be easily repaired by sanding several times.
4. Formation of Cracks
- Wood veneer is laid on MDF or plywood which has a different expansion and contraction rate than the veneer itself.
- This uneven expansion and contraction results in the formation of cracks.