Site Analysis

Feb 12, 2019


Site analysis is assessing the site and drawing inferences to aid further design conception and implementation.

Why there is a need of Site Analysis?

  • The assessment provides the relevant information regarding the environment, natural and artificial features of the site.
  • This ought to be used as starting process for the design process.

Site analysis aids in the following ways :

  • Avoiding inappropriate design responses
  • Legal Applications
  • Discovering interrelationships
  • Greater efficiency when designing factors


  • Location
  • Neighbourhood context
  • Climate
  • Site


Why there is need to look for location?

  • To understand the relation of site with region and their influence on it.

Components of Location:

  • a. State
  • b. City
  • c. Site

a. State:

Why there is a need to study site at State level?

  • To study site at regional level which gives information about:


  • Historical and
    cultural aspects
  • Resources
  • Seismic zone

b. City:

Why there is a need to study site at City level?

  • To study the site at the local level comprising of following:


  • Geology
  • Topography
  • Climate
  • Geohydrology
  • Landmarks

c. Site:

  • To study immediate or urban context (Paths, Edges, Districts, Nodes, Landmark) to site.


  • Street name/ address
  • Approach
  • Orientation


What is Neighbourhood context?

  • Immediate surrounding and it may include important factor around the site in its proximity.

Why there is a need to look at Neighbourhood context?

  • To identify and analyse the various factors in the vicinity that could affect the site’s built environment.
  • a. Immediate context
  • b. Circulation
  • c. Sensory

a. Immediate context

What is Immediate context?

  • It refers to all activities which are taking place around the site w.r.t allocation and development.

Why there is a need to look at Immediate context?

  • To understand the influence of surrounding zoning on site w.r.t users and activities.

b. Site and Surrounding Circulation

What is site and surrounding circulation?

  • Movement pattern on and around the site.

Why there is a need to look at site and surrounding circulation?

  • To understand accessibility to the site.

Factors of site and surrounding circulation:


  • Bus routes
  • Traffic generators


  • Pathways
  • Footpaths

Road networks

  • Widths
  • Major, minor streets


What is sensory perception?

  • Observation of audio visual stimuli to and from the site and to take its advantage.

Why there is a need to look at sensory aspect of site?

  • To judge the relative desirability of sensory conditions on site.

Factors of sensory:

  • Visual/Views
  • Noise
  • Odour

How to study Neighbourhood Context?

  • It is hereby explained through a residential site example:


What is climate?

  • Mean weather conditions over a period of time

Why there is need to look for climate?

  • To harness prevailing climatic conditions for creating comfort conditions
  • Protect space and building from prevailing winds, cold and from down pour- rain and snow
  • Efficient daylight into space and building
  • Shade and exposure to sunlight via openings
  • Durability and optimum usage of materials

Components of Location:

  • a. Macro Climate
  • b. Micro Climate

Macro Climate

What is macro climate?

  • Overall climate of the region.
Factors which affect macro climate:
  • Temperature
  • Relative humidity
  • Wind direction
  • Rainfall

Micro Climate

What is micro climate?

  • Immediate local climatic conditions
Factors which affect micro climate:
  • Topography
  • Waterbodies
  • Vegetation
  • Construction materials

Note: Special features like water bodies, green and open spaces near the site affect the microclimate, So allocation of activities on the site should be done accordingly

How to study climate?

  • Macro climate: Climatic information such as rainfall, snowfall, wind directions, temperatures, sun path, all assessed during the different times of the year.
  • Micro climate: To analyse the micro climate according to the occupancy or usage of the project

For example:

a. A Residence

  • Diurnal temperature of the day should be analysed.

b. A School

  • The analysis should be done for the first quarter of the day.

4. SITE:

Why is there a need to assess the Site?

  • To analyse different aspects of site on and around it.

Components of site:

  • a. Size and by laws
  • b. Natural physical features
  • c. Man made features

Size and by laws

What includes in size and by laws?

  • Dimensional aspects and legal verification of site like Building bylaws, Sustainable bylaws, etc.

Why there is a need to study by laws?

  • To ensure the orderly development of site.
  • Sufficient ventilation and air.
  • No building blocks the lighting and ventilation of neighbours.
  • Health and comfort conditions.
Factors of Size:
  • Dimensions
  • Area
  • Shape
  • Boundaries
Factors of By laws:
  • Built up area
  • Restricted height
  • Setbacks
  • Parking
  • Allowable usage
  • FAR, BAR

How to study by laws?

  • By laws is to be studied from the local government development authority for understanding prevailing bylaw

Natural physical features:

What are Natural Physical Features?

  • It includes different landforms of site and its characteristics

Why is there a need to look at Natural Physical Features?

  • To analyse the placement of different activities of site w.r.t. the existing features.

Components of site:

  • a. Geology
  • b. Topography
  • c. Seismic zone
  • d. Geohydrology
  • e. Flora & Fauna


What is Geology?

  • Earth science comprising study of solid earth.

Why there is a need to look at it?

  • To assess the nature of soil and in turn the stability of land and its effect on the building.
Factors of Geology:
  • Soil type
  • Bearing capacity
  • Stability

How to study geology?

  • It can be analysed according to type of soil.

For example:

a. Coarse grained soils (eg. Sands and gravel)

  • As coarse grained soils has good bearing capacity.
  • Strip foundation is recommended.

b. Fine grained soils (eg. Silts and clays)

  • It has good-load bearing qualities when dry
  • Pile foundation is recommended.


What is Topography?

  • Slope and level of the land.

Why there is a need to look at Topography?

  • To understand allocation of activities w.r.t topography.

Factors of Topography:

  • Contour map
  • Ridges, Valleys, Slope or flat
  • Low point and high point

How to study topography?

  • To study topography through different slope of the land.

For example:

a. Ridge

  • One must consider the locations and elevations of different activities on and around the site.

b. Valley

  • Catchment areas should be planned accordingly

Seismic zone:

What is Seismic Zone?

  • Seismic zone is a region in which the rate of seismic activity remains fairly consistent

Why there is a need to look at Seismic activities?

  • To ensure structure and stability of building depending upon these seismic activities


  • Land
    • Earthquake
    • Landslides
    • Volcano
  • Water
    • Floods
    • Cyclones
    • Tsunami
  • Wind
    • Hurricane
    • Tornado


What is Geohydrology?

  • It refers to study of ground water

Why there is a need to look at Geohydrology?

  • To analyse the effects of the water table, soil porosity, seepage, soil strength and how it affects the building.

Factors of Geohydrology:

  • Groundwater level
  • Sources/Modes of
  • Characteristics of

Flaura and Fauna

What is Flora and Fauna?

  • Available vegetation like trees, crops etc and living organisms like insects , termites etc

Why there is a need to look at Flora and Fauna?

  • To understand the influence of flora and fauna on project development.

Man made features:

What are Manmade Features?

  • Things that are created or caused by humans rather than occurring naturally on and around the site

Why there is a need to look at Manmade Features?

  • To understand the influence of manmade features for the development of the site

Factors of man made features:

  • On site

    Features which may present on the site.

    • Structure
    • Paving patterns
    • Power poles
    • Hydrants
  • Off site

    Features which may available in the nearby surrounding area.

    • Electricity poles
    • Water lines
    • Sewer lines
    • Telephone lines

Note : Data should be supported with maps, plans, elevations and sections, isometrics or perspective and relevant photographs
   : All information is pertinent to your project.