Site Analysis: Need Advantages Components and Context

Are you an Architect? Want to post your project? POST NOW

Site analysis is assessing the site and drawing inferences to aid further design conception and implementation.

Why there is a need of Site Analysis?

  • The assessment provides the relevant information regarding the environment, natural and artificial features of the site.
  • This ought to be used as starting process for the design process.

Site analysis aids in the following ways :

  • Avoiding inappropriate design responses
  • Legal Applications
  • Discovering interrelationships
  • Greater efficiency when designing factors

COMPONENTS OF SITE ANALYSIS

  • Location
  • Neighborhood context
  • Climate
  • Site
Site illustration

1. LOCATION:

Why there is need to look for location?

  • To understand the relation of site with region and their influence on it.
Location map

Components of Location:

  • State
  • City
  • Site
a. State:

Why there is a need to study site at State level?

  • To study site at regional level which gives information about:

Factors:

  • Historical and cultural aspects
  • Resources
  • Seismic zone
b. City:

Why there is a need to study site at City level?

  • To study the site at the local level comprising of following:

Factors:

  • Geology
  • Topography
  • Climate
  • Geo-hydrology
  • Landmarks
c. Site:
  • To study immediate or urban context (Paths, Edges, Districts, Nodes, Landmark) to site.

Factors:

  • Street name/ address Approach
  • Orientation

2. NEIGHBORHOOD CONTEXT :

What is Neighbourhood context?

  • Immediate surrounding and it may include important factor around the site in its proximity.

Why there is a need to look at Neighbourhood context?

  • To identify and analyse the various factors in the vicinity that could affect the site’s built environment.
Neighbourhood context
  • Immediate context
  • Circulation
  • Sensory

a. Immediate context

What is Immediate context?

  • It refers to all activities which are taking place around the site w.r.t allocation and development.

Why there is a need to look at Immediate context?

  • To understand the influence of surrounding zoning on site w.r.t users and activities.
Immediate context of site

b. Site and Surrounding Circulation

What is site and surrounding circulation?

  • Movement pattern on and around the site.

Why there is a need to look at site and surrounding circulation?

  • To understand accessibility to the site.
Site and surrounding circulation map

Factors of site and surrounding circulation:

Vehicular

  • Bus routes
  • Traffic generators

Pedestrian

  • Pathways
  • Footpaths

Road networks

  • Widths
  • Major, minor streets

Sensory

What is sensory perception?

  • Observation of audio visual stimuli to and from the site and to take its advantage.

Why there is a need to look at sensory aspect of site?

  • To judge the relative desirability of sensory conditions on site.
Noise map around the site
Factors of sensory:
  • Visual/Views
  • Noise
  • Odour
Views around the site

How to study Neighbourhood Context?

  • It is hereby explained through a residential site example:
Map showing neighboring building types
Map showing major vehicular and pedestrian movements with major and minor roads around the site
Map showing of views and noise around the site

3. CLIMATE:

What is climate?

  • Mean weather conditions over a period of time

Why there is need to look for climate?

  • To harness prevailing climatic conditions for creating comfort conditions
  • Protect space and building from prevailing winds, cold and from down pour- rain and snow
  • Efficient daylight into space and building
  • Shade and exposure to sunlight via openings
  • Durability and optimum usage of materials
Climate illustration

Components of Location:

  • Macro Climate
  • Micro Climate
Macro Climate

What is macro climate?

  • Overall climate of the region.
Factors which affect macro climate:
  • Temperature
  • Relative humidity
  • Wind direction
  • Rainfall
Site climatic conditions
Micro Climate

What is micro climate?

  • Immediate local climatic conditions
Factors which affect micro climate:
  • Topography
  • Water bodies
  • Vegetation
  • Construction materials

Note:Â Special features like water bodies, green and open spaces near the site affect the microclimate, So allocation of activities on the site should be done accordingly

How to study climate?

  • Macro Climate: Climatic information such as rainfall, snowfall, wind directions, temperatures, sun path, all assessed during the different times of the year.
  • Micro Climate: To analyse the micro climate according to the occupancy or usage of the project

For example:

A. Residence

  • Diurnal temperature of the day should be analysed.

B. A School

  • The analysis should be done for the first quarter of the day.

4. SITE:

Why is there a need to assess the Site?

  • To analyse different aspects of site on and around it.
Site map

Components of site:

  • Size and by laws
  • Natural physical features
  • Man made features
Size and by laws

What includes in size and by laws?

  • Dimensional aspects and legal verification of site like Building by laws, Sustainable by laws, etc.

Why there is a need to study by laws?

  • To ensure the orderly development of site.
  • Sufficient ventilation and air.
  • No building blocks the lighting and ventilation of neighbors.
  • Health and comfort conditions.
Site dimensions and area
Factors of Size:
  • Dimensions
  • Area
  • Shape
  • Boundaries
Factors of By laws:
  • Built up area
  • Restricted height
  • Setbacks
  • Parking
  • Allowable usage
  • FAR, BAR
Site setbacks

How to study by laws?

  • By laws is to be studied from the local government development authority for understanding prevailing by law
Site setbacks

Natural physical features:

What are Natural Physical Features?

  • It includes different landforms of site and its characteristics

Why is there a need to look at Natural Physical Features?

  • To analyse the placement of different activities of site w.r.t. the existing features.
Natural physical features on site

Components of site:

  • Geology
  • Topography
  • Seismic zone
  • Geo-hydrology
  • Flora & Fauna

Geology:

What is Geology?

  • Earth science comprising study of solid earth.

Why there is a need to look at it?

  • To assess the nature of soil and in turn the stability of land and its effect on the building.
Geological illustration
Factors of Geology:
  • Soil type
  • Bearing capacity
  • Stability

How to study geology?

  • It can be analysed according to type of soil.

For example:

a. Coarse Grained Soils (eg. Sands and Gravel)

  • As coarse grained soils has good bearing capacity.
  • Strip foundation is recommended.

Strip foundation illustration

b. Fine Grained Soils (eg. Silts and Clays)

  • It has good-load bearing qualities when dry
  • Pile foundation is recommended.

Pile foundation illustration

Topography:

What is Topography?

  • Slope and level of the land.

Why there is a need to look at Topography?

  • To understand allocation of activities w.r.t topography.
Site contour
Factors of Topography:
  • Contour map
  • Ridges, Valleys, Slope or flat
  • Low point and high point
Site topography

How to study topography?

  • To study topography through different slope of the land.

For example:

a. Ridge

  • One must consider the locations and elevations of different activities on and around the site.

Ridge topography

b. Valley

  • Catchment areas should be planned accordingly

Valley topography

Seismic zone:

What is Seismic Zone?

  • Seismic zone is a region in which the rate of seismic activity remains fairly consistent

Why there is a need to look at Seismic activities?

  • To ensure structure and stability of building depending upon these seismic activities

Factors:

  • Land
    • Earthquake
    • Landslides
    • Volcano
  • Water
    • Floods
    • Cyclones
    • Tsunami
  • Wind
    • Hurricane
    • Tornado

Geohydrology:

What is Geohydrology?

  • It refers to study of ground water

Why there is a need to look at Geohydrology?

  • To analyse the effects of the water table, soil porosity, seepage, soil strength and how it affects the building.

Factors of Geohydrology:

  • Groundwater level
  • Sources/Modes of water
  • Characteristics of water

Flaura and Fauna

What is Flora and Fauna?

  • Available vegetation like trees, crops etc and living organisms like insects , termites etc

Why there is a need to look at Flora and Fauna?

  • To understand the influence of flora and fauna on project development.
Existing vegetation on site

Man made features:

What are Man made Features?

  • Things that are created or caused by humans rather than occurring naturally on and around the site

Why there is a need to look at Man made Features?

  • To understand the influence of man made features for the development of the site
Existing Light poles on site

Factors of man made features:

  • On site Features which may present on the site.
    • Structure
    • Paving patterns
    • Power poles
    • Hydrants
  • Off site Features which may available in the nearby surrounding area.
    • Electricity poles
    • Water lines
    • Sewer lines
    • Telephone lines

Note :Â Data should be supported with maps, plans, elevations and sections, isometrics or perspective and relevant photographs
   : All information is pertinent to your project.

Add Comment